Salad and lettuce have been used as food crops and crops in Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. used as a medicinal plant. The first information about its breeding was given by M.Ü. Persians around 600 was found to be held by During the times of the ancient Greeks, Romans and Egyptians Information on salad cultivation is available. Its homeland is generally Europe, North Africa and Asian countries are accepted. Among the vegetables in the salad group, salad and lettuce are the most consumed vegetables all over the world. are among. Salad and lettuce sold in markets and markets for twelve months are an annual It is a cool climate vegetable.
Where do Salads and Lettuce grow best?; Open and Covered in salad and lettuce types with a short growing period of 2-3 months. production twelve months of the year with varieties that have been bred in accordance with it is possible to do. In the production and consumption of salad and lettuce, especially the USA, the Netherlands, Italy, England and Germany are ranked as important countries.
Nutritional value of salads and lettuce
Salads and lettuces, which are healthy and appetizing vegetables, are consumed fresh. It is especially rich in vitamins and minerals. Salad and lettuce The nutritional value is given in the table below.
- Calorie: 10,0 – 15,0 / Na (mg) 9,0
- Protein: 0,9–1,2 / K (mg) 175–264
- Oil: 0,2/ Vitamin A 330–1900
- Carbohydrate: 1,2–2,9 / Vitamin B1 (mg) 0,04–0,06
- Ash: 0,9 / Vitamin B2 (mg) 0,07
- Water: 95,0 / Niacin (mg) 0,2–0,4
- Ca (mg): 22–26 / Vitamin C (mg) 6 – 18
- Fe (mg): 0,5-2,0
Stems and leaves of Salad and Lettuce
Stem short, usually 1–15 cm long, fleshy inside It is white in color and thick in structure. Then from the part near the soil surface From the beginning of the rosette form overlapping leaves are formed. The leaves of salads and lettuces are color, shape, size, straight or curly, head differs according to the cultivars. Salads and lettuces are based on these features. are classified. Leaf colors are dark green, light green, yellowish green, brownish green, red, with a small amount of red and generally green.
Flowers: Salad and lettuce are long day vegetables. 10-15 hours a day needs more light. Prolongation of the lighting period from vegetative development to generative allows for development. Vegetative development is followed by the formation of the seed stalk. It finds many flower stalks on the plant. flower stalks 60–120 cm depending on varieties can be between. flowers are arranged in bunches on the flower stalk. Seeds of salad and lettuce are oval, elongated, straight or 3-5 grooved. may be. Colors are usually white and black, yellow-gray, cream, silvery or it can be brown.
Salad and Lettuce Varieties
Salad and lettuce are one of the vegetables with the highest form richness. existing lettuce can be divided into four main groups.
- Ice salads
- Oil Salads
- Romanian salads
- Leaf salads
When to Grow Salad and Lettuce?
Production of salads and lettuce is by direct sowing of seeds into the field or seedlings. grown in the form of planting the seedling in the field. Growing by direct sowing In the system, 100–120 g of seeds are used per acre. Sowing depth should be up to 2 cm. Seed In planting, the soil should be prepared very well by crumbling. Salads and lettuces can also be grown under cover at different times. very harsh winter It is possible to produce under cover during the winter without heating in regions that do not pass through. In the periods when open production is limited with low temperatures, greenhouse cultivation is more common. becomes important. temperature for the growth of young seedlings under cover is 13 0C at night, 16 0C during the day should be.
Soil preparation for planting Salad and Lettuce
Salads and lettuces are well-drained, especially in a 25-30 cm soil layer. Better in loamy sandy or sandy loam soils rich in organic matter and nutrients grows. Clay soils are dense, heavy, poor aeration and high moisture capacities. and not good for lettuce. Materials such as sand, perlite, organic materials in such soils soil needs to be improved. Salad grows well in soils with a pH of 6-7, and lettuce in soils with a pH of 5.5-7. pH greater than 5.5 It does not grow well in acidic soils. When the pH is higher than 7 and the calcium is higher, manganese, Potassium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, boron intake is prevented. In such lands ammonium fertilizers and burnt farm manure should be used, 50 kg of sulfur per decare should be used every year. should be applied.
Salad and lettuce are moderately sensitive to soil salinity. 2-4 ppm bore in water it is durable. Excess salt is effective in seed germination. In such cases the seeds does not germinate or the germinated ones cannot grow, the heads remain small. Especially in seedling cultivation Local peat with high salt should not be used.
Diseases in Salad and Lettuce
- Lettuce and salad mosaic virus: The head is larger than normal in the infected plant. remains small or cannot form a head. A glassy appearance that becomes transparent on the leaf The color is lightened along the field veins. Mosaic stains are formed. virus in leaf creates an oil-dropped image.
- Cucumber mosaic virus: Symptoms are similar to salad and lettuce mosaic virus. Infected plants remain stunted, turn yellowish, and the head is normal. does not reach size. The virus overwinter in perennial weeds. it infects plants.
- Lettuce coarse vein virus: Around veins in newly formed young leaves with slight discoloration, the veins become more prominent and thickens.
- Lettuce leaf edge blight and core rot: On leaves and leaves browning and bruising are seen on the edges. On thin leaves small brown to yellow spots appear along the veins. Then Dark brown spots of various sizes occur on the leaf blade. Damp In the air, bacteria can cause soft caries to occur in the sap. causes.
- Lettuce downy mildew: On the old leaves, on the leaf margins yellowish, light green areas are seen. Spots on leaves in humid weather on the underside, a dirty white mold-like cover is seen.
- Lettuce stem rot: The disease is not transmitted by seed. Lettuce stalk rot The disease starts on the trunk near the soil surface. Severe age, bruise quickly cause development. The leaf bases rot first.
- Lettuce white rot: The disease begins in the lower parts of the stem. Later progresses upwards and downwards. Leakage in leaves of diseased plants, The most important characteristic is the appearance of droplets. rapidly in parasitic tissues. multiplies, leaves die.
- Anthracnose: The disease appears first on the lower leaves. Then the inner leaves proceeds right. Spots start out wet, small yellow, midway when they develop. gray, violet-like margins, dark in small, roundish wet areas turns brown.