Stonemason; Rock, Along with materials such as brick, wood, iron and lime, it is one of the traditional building materials that make up historical masonry structures. It can be used directly as a building block, in other words, by giving a carrier function. The walls of a building, a villa can be made entirely of stone. Stone can be used in construction as a covering element on any material.
Traditional Stone Wall Methods
- Rubble Stone Wall
The untreated stone used as it comes out of the quarry is called “rubble stone”. The stone is set in place by roughly smoothing only the protruding and pointed ends. Since they do not have a defined geometric shape and smooth surfaces; The weaves of the walls made with these stones do not have a regular appearance either. Natural stones of various types and sizes can be used together in the construction of rubble stone walls.
- Rough Stone Wall
The stone whose forehead and lateral surfaces have been smoothed with a hammer and processed roughly is called “rough cut stone”. Unlike the rubble stone wall, it is possible to follow the horizontal stone rows visually. It may have a regular weave, as well as the size and joint spacing of the stones may be variable.
- Thin stone wall
It is a masonry made with stones prepared in the form of thin sills by correcting the forehead and side faces. Horizontal rows of stones are clearly visible, like a rough-hewn stone wall. The size of the stones can be variable. Since the side faces are more corrected, the stones have a more angular appearance and the joint intervals have a more regular appearance.
- Cut Stone Wall
The building stone, which has a smooth prismatic shape and all surfaces are processed with the fine-cut technique, is called “cut stone”. A wall is built by bringing together the stones prepared by cutting into smooth blocks, with or without joints.
- Alternative Wall
It is a wall construction technique in which various masonry building materials (stones of various types and colors, bricks, etc.) are used together. The most common is the two-color stone or stone-brick alternating masonry technique.
How is the Stone Used?; Stones are used in architecture and construction industry in four ways. A- As a carrier, B- As a coating, C- As a decoration, D- As an aggregate. (Stone can be used as aggregate in mortar or plaster mixtures by crushing and sifting in various sizes or by pulverizing)
Foundation construction in stone walls
The foundation is the part of the building that transfers the loads transmitted to it through the walls, pillars and columns to the ground. Transferring the said loads to the ground in the strongest and safest way is achieved by making an excavation deep enough to reach the solid ground in the area where the Stone Wall structure will be built. Foundations can be in the form of “continuous” walls; They may also have been built as “single (individual)” legs. It should be ensured that the stone is of the desired quality (with physical and mechanical properties) and dimensions. An Analysis Report stating the quality and characteristics of the stone must be requested. Stones should be processed and shaped with “traditional stonemason’s hand tools” as required by the wall building technique.
What should be considered when making a wall?
The basic principle in wall construction technique; It is the construction of stones or bricks by overlapping each other. If the stone placed in the corner is used in a horizontal row, it should be used longitudinally in the row above it. Another important principle in wall construction is the use of some stones perpendicular to the surface throughout the wall thickness at certain intervals. Thus, the strength of the wall in two directions is increased and the front and back parts of it are prevented from moving apart from each other. Ideally, a one-piece element should be placed across a wall thickness in several rows.
Stone Wall Stair Construction
Stone can be used in basically two different ways in the construction of stairs. The steps can be prepared by cutting one piece of block stone. Stone steps are frequently encountered at the entrances, thresholds, minarets and interior stairs of historical buildings. Stone can also be used on stairs as a covering material. Making stairs with stone walls Especially in 20th century buildings, stairs made of reinforced concrete in the early period were later covered with stone slabs of various thicknesses. professional stonemasons. Depending on the direction of the staircase, the size and shape of the space and the location of the landing, the stairs can be constructed in many different types.
Architectural Features of Stone Walls
The vertical partition elements that form the boundaries of spaces in buildings are called “walls”. In historical masonry buildings, walls are structural elements that have load-bearing functions in addition to the partition function. The load-bearing body walls of masonry structures are formed by using stone, brick or a combination of these. The thickness of the walls built with stones and bricks put together using various materials and techniques can sometimes be up to a few meters depending on the size and importance of the building. In some masonry building examples, it can be seen that the wooden frame system is also used on the upper floors and interior walls, which are desired to be lighter.
Walls are built by building elements such as stone and brick side by side and on top of each other. Stones treated with various grades and techniques can be used in traditional stone wall construction.